The ASEM Education Compendium for Higher Education’s glossary provides definitions of common terms related to education and training, as well as more specific entries related to credit systems, assurance and validation mechanisms. It is intended to promote communication and understanding between ASEM countries and beyond.
The purpose of this glossary is not to establish standard universally applicable definitions, but rather to be provide a working reference for all education and training stakeholders.
Grades describe the quality of learning achievements and rate the performance of a student at a particular level.
Higher Education Institution (HEI)
An educational body which carries out higher education activities based on legally approved study programmes.
Totality of information, knowledge, understanding, attitudes, values, skills, competencies or behaviours an individual is expected to master upon successful completion of an educational programme.
Source: ISCED 2011 UNESCO Institute for statistics
National Qualifications Framework (NQF)
An instrument for the classification of qualifications according to a set of criteria for specified levels of learning achieved, which aims to integrate and coordinate national qualifications subsystems and improve the transparency, access, progression and quality of qualifications in relation to the labour market and civil society.Source: European Union (2018) ECTS Users’ Guide.
Quality Assurance (QA)
The process or set of processes adopted nationally and institutionally to ensure the quality of educational programmes and qualifications awarded. Quality assurance should ensure a learning environment in which the content of programmes, learning opportunities and facilities are fit for purpose. Quality assurance is often referred to in the context of a continuous improvement cycle (i.e. assurance and enhancement activities).Source: European Union (2018) ECTS Users’ Guide.https://ec.europa.eu/education/sites/education/files/document-library-docs/ects-users-guide_en.pdf Internal and external quality assurance
IQA is the ongoing, continuous process of evaluating, monitoring and improving the quality of a higher education institution and its study programmes. A distinction is typically made between internal quality assurance (IQA) – whereby practices to improve the quality takes place within the university – and external quality assurance (EQA), which is often performed by a national agency, sometimes together with professional bodies or private providers of QA services.Source: UNESCOhttp://www.iiep.unesco.org/en/how-does-internal-quality-assurance-impact-employability-3551
An estimation of the time learners typically need to complete all learning activities such as lectures, seminars, projects, practical work, work placements, individual study required to achieve the defined learning outcomes in formal learning environments.
An official (e.g. certified) document which provides a complete summary of the student’s academic record at that institution(s)/leading to a qualification.