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Glossary

The ASEM Education Compendium for Higher Education’s glossary provides definitions of common terms related to education and training, as well as more specific entries related to credit systems, assurance and validation mechanisms. It is intended to promote communication and understanding between ASEM countries and beyond.

The purpose of this glossary is not to establish standard universally applicable definitions, but rather to be provide a working reference for all education and training stakeholders.

Academic Year

Annual teaching or examination period during which students attend courses or take final examinations, not taking minor breaks into account. It may be shorter than 12 months, but would typically not be shorter than 9 months. It may vary for different levels of education or types of educational institutions within a country. This is also referred to as the school year, mainly for the pre-tertiary level.

Source: ISCED 2011 UNESCO Institute for statistics
http://uis.unesco.org/glossary 

Accreditation

The process by which a (non-)governmental or private body evaluates the quality of a higher education institution as a whole or of a specific educational programme in order to formally recognise it as having met certain pre-determined minimal criteria or standards. The result of this process is usually the awarding of a status (a yes/no decision), of recognition, and sometimes of a license to operate within a time-limited validity. The process can imply initial and periodic self-study and evaluation by external peers.

Source: Enic-Naric Net (2016) ‘GLOSSARY’
http://ear.enic-naric.net/emanual/glossary/glossary.aspx 

ASEAN Credit Transfer System (ACTS)

ASEAN Credit Transfer System (ACTS) is a student-centered system applied to student mobility among AUN (ASEAN University Network) Member Universities. This system was developed to facilitate student mobility under AUN Student Exchange Program. ACTS has been designed to accommodate differences in the implementation of credit systems among the member universities without any requirement to modify the existing institutional or national credit system. 

Source: AUN Secretariat   
http://www.aunsec.org/aunacts.php
AUN-ACTS Secretariat 
https://acts.ui.ac.id 

Assessment of Learning

Assessment of learner’s achievement the primary purpose of which is to provide information about what has been learned at a particular point in time. This process often involves the use of standardized tests or examinations. It is often, though not always, used for the purpose of promotion and/or graduation.

Source: UNESCO-IBE (2013) ‘IBE Glossary of Curriculum Term’
http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/IBE_GlossaryCurriculumTerminology2013_eng.pdf 

Assessment of Learning Outcomes

Assessment of an individual’s achievement of stated learning outcomes, using a variety of methods (written, oral and practical tests/examinations, projects and portfolios) during or at the end of an education programme or a defined part of that programme.

Source: UNESCO-IBE (2013) ‘IBE Glossary of Curriculum Term’
http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/IBE_GlossaryCurriculumTerminology2013_eng.pdf 

Course Unit

A self-contained, formally structured learning experience. It should have a coherent and explicit set of learning outcomes, defined learning activities consistent with the time allocated within the curriculum, and appropriate assessment criteria.

Source: European Union (2018) ECTS Users’ Guide
https://ec.europa.eu/education/sites/education/files/document-library-docs/ects-users-guide_en.pdf 

Credit

Unit in which the successful completion of courses or modules is earned and documented during and at the end of an educational programme. Credits express the volume of learning based on the workload students typically need in order to achieve the expected learning objectives.


Source: ISCED 2011 UNESCO Institute for statistics
http://uis.unesco.org/glossary 

Credit Transfer

A process that allows credits awarded by one higher education awarding body to be recognised and count towards the requirements of a programme at another institution; or that allows credit gained on a particular programme to contribute towards the requirements of a different one.

Curriculum

In the simplest terms, ‘curriculum’ is a description of what, why, how and how well students should learn in a systematic and intentional way. The curriculum is not an end in itself but rather a means to fostering quality learning.


Source: UNESCO-IBE (2013) ‘IBE Glossary of Curriculum Term’
http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/IBE_GlossaryCurriculumTerminology2013_eng.pdf 

Curriculum Evaluation

The process of measuring and judging the extent to which the planned courses, programmes, learning activities and opportunities as expressed in the formal curriculum actually produce the expected results. If carried out effectively, this process can enable decisions to be made about improvements and future progress.


Source: UNESCO-IBE (2013) ‘IBE Glossary of Curriculum Term’
http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/IBE_GlossaryCurriculumTerminology2013_eng.pdf