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Glossary

The ASEM Education Compendium for Higher Education’s glossary provides definitions of common terms related to education and training, as well as more specific entries related to credit systems, assurance and validation mechanisms. It is intended to promote communication and understanding between ASEM countries and beyond.

The purpose of this glossary is not to establish standard universally applicable definitions, but rather to be provide a working reference for all education and training stakeholders.

Academic Year

Annual teaching or examination period during which students attend courses or take final examinations, not taking minor breaks into account. It may be shorter than 12 months, but would typically not be shorter than 9 months. It may vary for different levels of education or types of educational institutions within a country. This is also referred to as the school year, mainly for the pre-tertiary level.

Source: ISCED 2011 UNESCO Institute for statistics
http://uis.unesco.org/glossary 

Accreditation

The process by which a (non-)governmental or private body evaluates the quality of a higher education institution as a whole or of a specific educational programme in order to formally recognise it as having met certain pre-determined minimal criteria or standards. The result of this process is usually the awarding of a status (a yes/no decision), of recognition, and sometimes of a license to operate within a time-limited validity. The process can imply initial and periodic self-study and evaluation by external peers.

Source: Enic-Naric Net (2016) ‘GLOSSARY’
http://ear.enic-naric.net/emanual/glossary/glossary.aspx 

Assessment of Learning

Assessment of learner’s achievement the primary purpose of which is to provide information about what has been learned at a particular point in time. This process often involves the use of standardized tests or examinations. It is often, though not always, used for the purpose of promotion and/or graduation.

Source: UNESCO-IBE (2013) ‘IBE Glossary of Curriculum Term’
http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/IBE_GlossaryCurriculumTerminology2013_eng.pdf 

Assessment of Learning Outcomes

Assessment of an individual’s achievement of stated learning outcomes, using a variety of methods (written, oral and practical tests/examinations, projects and portfolios) during or at the end of an education programme or a defined part of that programme.

Source: UNESCO-IBE (2013) ‘IBE Glossary of Curriculum Term’
http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/IBE_GlossaryCurriculumTerminology2013_eng.pdf 

Credit

Unit in which the successful completion of courses or modules is earned and documented during and at the end of an educational programme. Credits express the volume of learning based on the workload students typically need in order to achieve the expected learning objectives.


Source: ISCED 2011 UNESCO Institute for statistics
http://uis.unesco.org/glossary 

Credit Transfer

A process that allows credits awarded by one higher education awarding body to be recognised and count towards the requirements of a programme at another institution; or that allows credit gained on a particular programme to contribute towards the requirements of a different one.

Curriculum

In the simplest terms, ‘curriculum’ is a description of what, why, how and how well students should learn in a systematic and intentional way. The curriculum is not an end in itself but rather a means to fostering quality learning.


Source: UNESCO-IBE (2013) ‘IBE Glossary of Curriculum Term’
http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/IBE_GlossaryCurriculumTerminology2013_eng.pdf 

Curriculum Evaluation

The process of measuring and judging the extent to which the planned courses, programmes, learning activities and opportunities as expressed in the formal curriculum actually produce the expected results. If carried out effectively, this process can enable decisions to be made about improvements and future progress.


Source: UNESCO-IBE (2013) ‘IBE Glossary of Curriculum Term’
http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/IBE_GlossaryCurriculumTerminology2013_eng.pdf 

European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS)

A learner-centred system for credit accumulation and transfer, based on the principle of transparency of learning, teaching and assessment processes. Its objective is to facilitate planning, delivery and evaluation of study programmes and student mobility by recognising learning achievements and qualifications and periods of learning.

Source: European Union (2018) ECTS Users’ Guide.
https://ec.europa.eu/education/sites/education/files/document-library-docs/ects-users-guide_en.pdf

European Qualifications Framework (EQF)

The European Qualifications Framework (EQF) acts as a translation device to make national qualifications more readable across Europe, promoting workers' and learners' mobility between countries and facilitating their lifelong learning. The EQF aims to relate different countries' national qualifications systems to a common European reference framework. Individuals and employers will be able to use the EQF to better understand and compare the qualifications levels of different countries and different education and training systems.

Source: Enic-Naric Net (2016) ‘GLOSSARY’
http://ear.enic-naric.net/emanual/glossary/glossary.aspx